Contrary to some recent blog posts I’ve read, I think second language (L2) instructors are quite keen on reading research. One of the problems, of course, is that many instructors often lack the time (and access/resources) to read papers, and so here’s a brief summary of an interesting study I’m using in my postgraduate oral communication subject/course.
Kayi-Aydar’s (2014) examined how two talkative students (Tarek and Ahmad) learned an L2 in their classroom. One member was accepted, whereas the other one was isolated. Kayi-Aydar’s asked why, and explored factors that contributed to students’ social status in the classroom. So what did Kayi-Aydar’s find? Tarek represented a leadership position. He was the oldest student and acted like a teacher. He told other students what to do and dominated classroom activities/events. Tarek blurted out comments instead of raising his hand (other students raised hands). Other students considered his behaviour “disruptive.” Ahmad, on the other hand, talked a great deal. He was more proficient in speaking than other students in class. Initially he portrayed himself as a learner who didn’t understand, but soon took on a competent student position. In pair work, although he would state that he didn’t know an answer, as soon as a partner provided an answer, he supplemented with additional information, thus demonstrating his competency. Other students seemed to lack a desire to communicate with him. Ahmad was positioned as the “arrogant” or “inconsiderate” student.
Over time, Tarek’s status changed from “outsider” to “insider.” He was accepted by the class because of the use of humour. He built friendships, and became less disruptive. His positional identity changed from merely “outspoken student” to “funny student.” In terms of teacher talk, there was flexibility with Tarek (the teacher laughed at jokes and encouraged him to speak), but with Ahmad there was less flexibility (the teacher stopped him from speaking several times to give others a chance to speak). Interestingly, the differences in how the teacher treated the two students may have directly impacted the degree to which the rest of the class “accepted” these 2 students in class.
Questions for Reflection:
Kayi-Aydar, H. (2014). Social positioning, participation, and second language learning: Talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly,48(4), 686-714 doi: 10.1002/tesq.139
Albeit a bit delayed (due to the mountain of marking on my desk), here are some of my thoughts - and facts - on the 2017 TESOL Convention held in Seattle a couple of weeks ago:
I spent Friday and Saturday at the TESOL Research Colloquium, hosted annually by the University of Sydney. I always enjoy going this free (!) event. This year, I attended for the first time a Friday pre-colloquium workshop: Gary Barkhuizen’s excellent 3-hour session on narrative inquiry. It was a very informative session that provided me with several new ideas for how to explore L2 teachers’ cognition about pronunciation pedagogy. The next morning, Gary did the colloquium’s opening plenary in which he discussed narrative frames. In essence, a narrative frame is a tool that guides the story teller. That is, a frame contains several language gambits (i.e., short phrases) that provide the narrator with some structure to follow. The result is a coherent story that is relatively easy analyze. Of course, like any research instrument, narrative frames are not without flaws, but as Gary convincingly argued, they hold tremendous potential for qualitative research. My next task is now to read some of the papers/references that were mentioned in the two narrative sessions, and then contemplate how to integrate narrative inquiry into my research agenda. I’ll keep you posted!
I'm preparing a lecture on L2 vocabulary teaching/learning for the postgraduate course on TESOL methodology I'm teaching this semester. Vocabulary is something I've always been interested in, particularly the difference between contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning. I'm pretty sure that the majority of L2 instructors (and quite possibly researchers as well) generally believe that vocabulary is best learned in context. Now here’s the kicker: context might be relatively irrelevant when it comes to vocabulary acquisition! To illustrate this, here is a short section I've taken from a book chapter that Amanda Baker, Bill Acton and I have co-authored and is included in Tamara Jones’ (2016) new book on pronunciation instruction:
…current theory on optimal instruction and acquisition of vocabulary proposes that it is generally best learned in context, using a more task-based approach (Nunan, 2004.) This theory, however, has recently faced an interesting twist. File and Adams's (2010) work, for example, demonstrates that in some situations less contextualized vocabulary instruction may lead to an equal or even higher rate of retention than does more integrated instruction. Additionally, research examining and comparing the effectiveness of top-down (i.e., learning words in context) and bottom-up (i.e., learning words in isolation) approaches to academic vocabulary instruction to Chinese learners of English revealed that students in the bottom-up group slightly outperformed their peers in the top-down group in terms of "vocabulary size and controlled productive vocabulary knowledge" (Moskovsky, Jiang, Libert, & Fagan, 2014, p. 271). Such research partially vindicates more traditional, form-based practice that places emphasis on the use of word lists, grammar, synonyms and antonyms, and attention to derivational (prefixes and suffixes) forms and word-family association. Research suggests, in fact, that intermediate-level learners may benefit even more from paradigmatic, form-focused vocabulary work (Elgort & Warren, 2014). From a practical, teaching perspective, of course, being flexible enough to work with both word usage in context and a word’s structural and semantic properties is ideal (Burri, Baker, & Acton, 2016, p.19).
Burri, M., Baker, A., & Acton, W. (2016). Anchoring academic vocabulary with a “hard hitting” haptic pronunciation teaching technique. In T. Jones (Ed.), Pronunciation in the classroom: The overlooked essential (pp.17-26). Alexandria, VA: TESOL Press.
Elgort, I., & Warren, P. (2014). L2 vocabulary learning from reading: Explicit and tacit lexical knowledge and the role of learner and item variables. Language Learning, 64, 365–414.
File, K., & Adams, R. (2010). Should vocabulary be isolated or integrated? TESOL Quarterly, 44, 222–249.
Jones, T. (Ed.). (2016). Pronunciation in the classroom: The overlooked essential. Alexandria, VI: TESOL Press.
Moskovsky, C., Jiang, G., Libert, A., & Fagan, S. (2014). Bottom-up or top-down: English as a foreign language vocabulary instruction for Chinese university students. TESOL Quarterly, 49, 256–277.
Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Even though pronunciation teaching is regaining its prominence in second language (L2) teaching (Levis, 2015; Thomson & Derwing, 2015), most L2 instructors continue to lack confidence in their ability to teach pronunciation in their classrooms (e.g., Couper, 2016; Foote, Holtby, & Derwing, 2011; Macdonald, 2002). Finding ways to help and, ultimately, empower teachers to include pronunciation in their classrooms is currently one of my main interests (among several other areas, of course). Instead of regurgitating some of the papers I've been working on, here is a brief overview of aspects (derived from my doctoral research) that I think teacher educators should consider incorporating into their programs:
This list is just a start.....It would be great to hear your thoughts on what else could be done to help L2 instructors make pronunciation a mainstay in their classrooms.
Acton, W. (2015). Haptic-integrated clinical pronunciation research. Available at
Braine, G. (2010). Nonnative speaker English teachers: Research, pedagogy, and professional growth. New York, NY: Routledge.
Couper, G. (2016). Teacher cognition of pronunciation teaching amongst English language teachers in Uruguay. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 2(1), 29-55. doi: 10.1075/jslp.2.1.02cou
Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (2015). Pronunciation fundamentals: Evidence-based perspectives for L2 teaching and research. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamin Publishing Company.
Foote, J. A., Holtby, A. K., & Derwing, T. M. (2011). Survey of the teaching pronunciation in adult ESL programs in Canada, 2010. TESL Canada Journal, 29(1), 1-22.
Grant, L. (Ed.) (2014). Pronunciation myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
Jones, T. (Ed.). (2016). Pronunciation in the classroom: The overlooked essential. Alexandria, VI: TESOL Press.
Kang, O., Thomson, R., & Murphy, J. (Eds.). (forthcoming). The Routledge handbook of English pronunciation. New York, NY: Routledge.
Levis, J. (2015). The journal of second language pronunciation : An essential step toward a disciplinary identity. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 1(1), 1-10.
Macdonald, S. (2002). Pronunciation – views and practices of reluctant teachers. Prospect, 17(3), 3-18.
Morita, N. (2004). Negotiating participation and identity in second language academic communities. TESOL Quarterly, 38(4), 573-603.
Reed, M., & Levis, J. (Eds.). (2015). The handbook of English pronunciation. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.
Thomson, R., & Derwing, T. M. (2015). The effectiveness of L2 pronunciation instruction: A narrative review. Applied Linguistics, 36(3), 326-344.
A couple of days ago, an interesting discussion on accent in L2 teaching took place among some of the members of the AusELT Facebook Group after a link to a pronunciation course was posted. Accent has been a hot topic in L2 teaching because of its connection to, for example, speaker identity. However, something that research has been able to establish quite clearly is that a speaker can have a strong accent yet be perfectly intelligible and comprehensible (i.e. easily understood). Instead of summarizing research papers published in this fascinating area, I've decided to post a few references for your perusal. This list is, of course, not exhaustive, and so feel free to add any (accent-related) articles you think would be worthwhile for L2 teachers and researchers to read.
Bao, Z. (2003). Social stigma and grammatical autonomy in nonnative varieties of English. Language in Society, 32(01), 23-46.
Buckingham, L. (2015). Shades of cosmopolitanism: EFL teachers' perspectives on English accents and pronunciation teaching in the Gulf. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1-16.
Hayes-Harb, R., & Hacking, J. (2015). Beyond rating data: What do listeners believe underlies their accentedness judgments? Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 1(1), 43-64.
Lev-Ari, S., & Keysar, B. (2010). Why don't we believe non-native speakers? The influence of accent on credibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 1093-1096.
Munro, M. J. (2003). A primer on accent discrimination in the Canadian context. TESL Canada Journal, 20(2), 38-51.
Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (1995). Foreign accent, comprehensibility and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners. Language Learning, 45(1), 73-97.
Murphy, J. (2014). Intelligible, comprehensible, non-native models in ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching. System, 42(0), 258-269.
At the end of January I had the privilege of attending/speaking at the 1st Mekong TESOL Conference in Can Tho, Vietnam (see Photo Gallery for photos). The conference theme "Tailoring English Teaching to Regional Needs" nicely captured what our field has been working hard to establish in the past couple of decades: every context is unique and a one-size-fits-all method, as was assumed with CLT in the 1980s and early 90s, does not work. It was great to see the conference being organized by local practitioners and researchers engaged in second language (L2) teaching in Vietnam. This was very much a conference by locals for locals. Overall, this experience gave me a renewed appreciation for L2 teaching in Southeast Asia. It also helped me better understand the challenges many L2 teachers face in Vietnam. In fact, I would really like to return to the Mekong region in the near future to conduct research on local teachers' practices (particularly on pronunciation pedagogy and speaking strategies) and what these practices mean for their students and their L2 learning process (although, granted, this would be an outsider's perspective on local practices). But for now, I'm going to incorporate some of these new insights into the graduate course on TESOL methodology I'm teaching this coming semester.
Interested in local pedagogy? Here are two books I think every instructor/researcher/administrator involved in L2 teaching needs to read:
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Canagarajah, S. A. (Ed.). (2005). Reclaiming the local in language policy and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
On June 12, 2015, I'm presenting parts of my doctoral research at the Faces of English Conference held at the University of Hong Kong (June 11- 13, 2015). The presentation is focusing on three pre-service teachers from Hong Kong. Below are the title and summary of the session:
"I didn't Notice the Prominence Before": L2 Instructors' Emerging Cognitions
Summary of Presentation:
This presentation discusses a qualitative study that explored the cognition (thoughts, beliefs, and knowledge) development of three student teachers from Hong Kong during a postgraduate course on pronunciation pedagogy offered at an Australian institution. Based on findings, recommendations are made for language teacher education and effective pronunciation teacher preparation.
I'm working on a new paper exploring the identity construction of postgraduate student teachers learning to teach pronunciation. The theoretical framework underpinning the study draws on Wenger's (1998; Lave & Wenger, 1991) social learning theory, which suggests that identity formation takes place in a community of practice. One particular aspect of Wenger’s theory that I consider using as an analytical lens is identification. This would allow me to explore how student teachers talk about themselves and others, and how they may align themselves with various theories and pedagogical constructs learned during their graduate studies. Subsequently, I'd be able to compare participants' identity transformation (or lack thereof) with their cognition development, which should yield valuable insights for language teacher educators.
What's perhaps more intriguing is that the process of familiarizing myself with Wenger’s theory has provided me with a better understanding of who I am as a PhD student, second language instructor and teacher educator. When I began reading about social learning theory, I didn't expect this to have an effect on me personally (I must admit that at first I was rather reluctant to include identity in my doctoral studies). Yet, trying to define identity and then designing a theoretical framework in which I could ground my new paper has been an invaluable experience. It has also helped me understand why identity has become such an important topic in second language teaching and research. Identity is inherently who we are and what we do, say and believe, and why we do certain things in life (or in the classroom for that matter). Had I been told this a few months ago, I would have agreed but more or less brushed identity off as being a buzzword currently used in language teaching and applied linguistics. Having worked on this paper for the past few weeks, however, has given me a new perspective and appreciation for identity and its importance. To put it differently, studying about identity has been truly – and unexpectedly – transformative, and I suppose this is what my PhD journey is ultimately all about.
Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Inspired by Bill Acton’s recent blog post on the TESOL Convention held in Toronto last March, I’ve decided to write up a few of my own thoughts and impressions about AAAL and TESOL (see photo gallery for pictures of my trip).
2015 AAAL Conference:
This was my first AAAL conference. It’s a different “crowd” at AAAL than the one that attends TESOL, and the sheer amount of empirical research presented at the event was a bit overwhelming and almost impossible to process at times. Nevertheless, I very much enjoyed the experience. I was fortunate to present some of my doctoral research, and I received valuable feedback from the audience. The morning and afternoon refreshments (or what they “call morning and afternoon tea” in Australia) were simply amazing, especially given the relatively low registration fee for full-time students. The coffee, juice, sweets, fruit etc was not only a welcome way to replenish some of the energy spent pondering over research and various applied linguistics-related issues, but also a wonderful opportunity to network, socialize and chat with some of the experts on whose work I draw in my own research.
One thing that was interesting was that relatively few sessions included any sort of classroom application (I felt the same way at AILA last year). I realize that the focus of AAAL is generally more on research than it is on the pedagogical side of things. Sometimes I wish, however, that presenters at these research-focused conferences would make explicit connections to the classroom, because the bottom line is that research in applied linguistics informs practice (and vice versa).
2015 TESOL Convention:
At TESOL, much like at AAAL, identity and teacher cognition were prominent topics (in fact, identity was the AAAL conference theme). The timing was ideal, as I’m currently working (with Amanda Baker and Honglin Chen) on a paper exploring the identity formation of pronunciation instructors. Thus, several of the sessions focusing on identity and/or cognition allowed me to gather some new ideas and references I may be able to incorporate into our paper.
One of the highlights of the conference was a session I attended on TESOL’s new research agenda. During the session I was fortunate to discuss my research with two fellow PhD students and with former TESOL president Jun Liu. Jun gave us some excellent feedback on our doctoral studies, and then each of us was given 1 minute to present to a group of about 40 people how our doctoral research aligned with TESOL’s research agenda.
The haptic workshop several colleagues/friends and I did went really well. We used tennis balls to train the audience in various haptic pronunciation teaching techniques. It was a blast and the people loved it! My research-based presentation on Thursday afternoon was received well, too. This was the session for which I received the “TESOL Award for an Outstanding Paper on NNEST Issues.” Receiving that award was definitely one of the most significant events of my career so far. The paper is currently under review; hence, I hope to get it published soon.
During my week in Toronto, I had many excellent conversations, and I was able to catch up with numerous friends and former colleagues. Attending AAAL and TESOL was tremendously inspiring, and I gained a lot of energy from talking to all these knowledgeable and passionate practitioners and researchers. Unfortunately, it appears that the two events won’t be piggybacked anymore. Not having the conferences back-to-back in the same town is going to be a real shame because (if I continue to live in Australia) it’s unlikely that I’ll be able to make it to both events in the same year. Keeping AAAL and TESOL separate may make sense logistically, but I don’t think it serves the language teaching profession well.
Lastly, spending time in Toronto was simply amazing. I’d never been to Toronto and I must confess that I’d always considered Toronto to be a boring place (in comparison to Calgary and Vancouver). Having spent an entire week there, however, I’ve had to come to the conclusion that Toronto is a vibrant city with many exciting things to do. I’d love to return in the summer (when it’s not -18C).
I am a Lecturer in TESOL at the University of Wollongong in Australia. I blog about L2 learning, L2 teaching, L2 teacher education, and research.