I’ve just returned to Australia after spending seven exciting weeks in Japan. Having gained extensive experience and further education since leaving my teaching job in Japan in 2003 has enabled me to observe English education/teaching in Japan somewhat differently and more critically. Having three children attend Japanese public school this year has also provided me with fascinating insights. These are not ground-breaking observations, and they are meant to be factual and not judgmental in nature:
My 12-year old son is attending junior high school in Japan this year. Even though his first language is English, he is required to sit through all of the English language classes. My wife met with the school principal a few weeks ago to discuss an alternative option, but she was told that there was nothing that could be done. Initially, attending English class seemed to be a total waste of his time, but then I realized that this was in fact quite an interesting context. How often does a kid who is highly proficient in a language need to sit through a beginning level class while his classmates don’t speak the language at all? So, to explore my son's perspective on English teaching at a Japanese junior high school, I’m going to have weekly (5-10 minute) interviews with him. I’m really not sure where this little project is going, but here are a few interesting points he has mentioned so far:
Johnston, S. (2002). A Japanese 3rd grade classroom: The individual within the group. Childhood Education, 78(6), 342-348.
I attended the annual TESOL Convention in Chicago last week, and it turned out to be an excellent and stimulating event. The weather wasn’t too bad (unlike Toronto in 2015 when it was -25C), and, in addition to giving three talks and spending time at our UOW booth in the Exhibitor’s Hall, I managed to squeeze in a couple of days of sightseeing prior to the convention. Here are a few highlights and thoughts on my time in Chicago:
I'm giving three talks with Amanda Baker at the upcoming TESOL Convention in Chicago, USA (March 27-30, 2018). Here are the session details, including presentation summaries:
Enhancing Learners' Pragmatic Competence Using a Haptic Approach
Thursday, March 29, 2018: 13:00-13:45
E264 (McCormick Place, Lakeside Center, East)
Pronunciation Teacher Education: Researching a Blended Online and On-Campus Design
Friday, March 30, 2018: 11:30-12:15
N137 (McCormick Place, North Building)
Learning to Teach English Pronunciation: From Student to Novice Teacher
Friday, March 30, 2018: 14:00-14:45
N138 (McCormick Place, North Building)
Last weekend, I was fortunate to attend and present at the annual ETAS (English Teaching Association Switzerland) conference in Zofingen. Below are a few brief thoughts about the event:
I’ve just returned from the Applied Linguistics Conference in Auckland (NZ) where I presented my latest research on learning to teach English pronunciation. Here are a few highlights and thoughts on the conference:
As mentioned in a previous blog post, I’m presenting some preliminary findings of my latest research project on learning to teach English pronunciation at the upcoming Applied Linguistics conference in Auckland, New Zealand (November 28, 2017). Here are the title and the abstract of the session:
Learning to Teach Pronunciation: A 4-Year Study
Research has provided evidence about the positive impact of second language teacher education (SLTE) on the practices, and beliefs and knowledge (i.e., cognition) of in-service and pre-service teachers (Busch, 2010; Farrell, 2009; Kurihara, 2013; Lee, 2015). Studies have also shown that preparing second language (L2) teachers to teach English pronunciation can be effective (Baker, 2011; Burri, 2015, Burri, Baker & Chen, 2017; Golombek & Jordan, 2005). However, research has yet to examine how novice L2 teachers’ pronunciation teaching practices develop longitudinally and how that development relates to their postgraduate studies. Such research is needed to demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of SLTE on teacher practice.
The longitudinal study presented in this session examines the cognition development of three instructors teaching English as an additional language in Australia following their study of a postgraduate subject on pronunciation pedagogy. Specifically, the research compares the teachers’ current pronunciation-oriented cognitions and classroom practices with the teachers’ previous cognitions about teaching pronunciation formed during their university study four years earlier. Questionnaires, interviews, assessment tasks, focus groups, and observations conducted during the participants’ postgraduate studies, as well as narrative frames (Barkhiuzen, 2014) to elicit participants’ perspectives on their current practices were collected and triangulated to compare data over a period of four years.
Findings showed that learning to teach English pronunciation is a dynamic, individual and non-linear process; one that goes beyond postgraduate education and well into L2 teachers’ professional career. Teachers reported using their classrooms knowledge about pronunciation acquired during their studies; yet, external factors exerted powerful influences on their practices. These factors limited teachers’ implementation of acquired knowledge, which led some of the teachers to return to practices and cognitions held prior to their postgraduate studies. The session concludes with a brief discussion of implications for SLTE.
Farrell (2015) suggests that second language teacher education (SLTE) often lacks effectiveness in preparing second language (L2) instructors. He argues that programs do not prepare “teacher learners adequately about how to deal with the realities of teaching in the classroom” (p.2). Farrell proposes for programs to align their content with prospective L2 teachers’ needs more closely to ensure that content presented to student teachers was relevant to their future teaching contexts. He goes on to say that L2 teacher educators should continue monitoring the development of graduates’ pedagogical skills once they are teaching in their L2 classrooms. This would allow teacher educators to create cases of practicing instructors that could then be incorporated into SLTE programs to facilitate reflection and student teacher learning. Exploring these cases would enable future teachers to attain insights into the realities, challenges, and issues that are typically involved in L2 classroom teaching.
I like Farrell's suggestions, as they resonate with one of my ongoing research projects. In this longitudinal study I am exploring how L2 teachers’ pronunciation teaching practices and their current beliefs and knowledge (i.e., cognitions) about English pronunciation relate to what they learned during a graduate course on pronunciation pedagogy. Examining this connection should yield important insights into L2 teacher learning and into the effectiveness of SLTE. I am presenting preliminary findings of this research at the Applied Linguistics conference in Auckland, New Zealand (November 2017). It would be great to see some of you there, but in case you cannot make it to Auckland, I am going to make the presentation abstract available on my blog a couple of weeks prior to the conference.
Farrell, T. S. C. (2015). Second language teacher education: A reality check. In T. S. C. Farrell (Ed.), International perspectives on English language teacher education: Innovations from the field (pp. 1-15). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Contrary to some recent blog posts I’ve read, I think second language (L2) instructors are quite keen on reading research. One of the problems, of course, is that many instructors often lack the time (and access/resources) to read papers, and so here’s a brief summary of an interesting study I’m using in my postgraduate oral communication subject/course.
Kayi-Aydar’s (2014) examined how two talkative students (Tarek and Ahmad) learned an L2 in their classroom. One member was accepted, whereas the other one was isolated. Kayi-Aydar’s asked why, and explored factors that contributed to students’ social status in the classroom. So what did Kayi-Aydar’s find? Tarek represented a leadership position. He was the oldest student and acted like a teacher. He told other students what to do and dominated classroom activities/events. Tarek blurted out comments instead of raising his hand (other students raised hands). Other students considered his behaviour “disruptive.” Ahmad, on the other hand, talked a great deal. He was more proficient in speaking than other students in class. Initially he portrayed himself as a learner who didn’t understand, but soon took on a competent student position. In pair work, although he would state that he didn’t know an answer, as soon as a partner provided an answer, he supplemented with additional information, thus demonstrating his competency. Other students seemed to lack a desire to communicate with him. Ahmad was positioned as the “arrogant” or “inconsiderate” student.
Over time, Tarek’s status changed from “outsider” to “insider.” He was accepted by the class because of the use of humour. He built friendships, and became less disruptive. His positional identity changed from merely “outspoken student” to “funny student.” In terms of teacher talk, there was flexibility with Tarek (the teacher laughed at jokes and encouraged him to speak), but with Ahmad there was less flexibility (the teacher stopped him from speaking several times to give others a chance to speak). Interestingly, the differences in how the teacher treated the two students may have directly impacted the degree to which the rest of the class “accepted” these 2 students in class.
Questions for Reflection:
Kayi-Aydar, H. (2014). Social positioning, participation, and second language learning: Talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly,48(4), 686-714 doi: 10.1002/tesq.139
Albeit a bit delayed (due to the mountain of marking on my desk), here are some of my thoughts - and facts - on the 2017 TESOL Convention held in Seattle a couple of weeks ago:
I am a Lecturer in TESOL at the University of Wollongong in Australia. I blog about L2 learning, L2 teaching, L2 teacher education, and research.